According to a recent study, a quarter of all Americans use mobile devices only to access the web. One out of every five people in the world own a smartphone, and over half of those people use it to surf the internet.
If your website doesn’t read well on those devices, you’re losing a huge chunk of mobile users. It’s time to embrace responsive design. Getting started can get complicated, but here are some tips to help.
1. Go Mobile First
Before you plan your design for desktop or laptop screens, think about the user experience on a mobile device. A lot of designers are embracing the mobile first movement. Why? Because mobile is becoming more relevant than desktop.
Approximately 1 in every 7 people on earth use their mobile devices to access the internet. Focus on how users interact with your website over their mobile phones first. Then build out your design for larger screen sizes.
2. Get Acquainted with Media Queries
Media queries are a feature in CSS3 that allow content to respond to different conditions on a particular device. Media queries check for a device’s resolution, height, width and orientation. Then it uses this information to determine which CSS rules to apply. Media queries are the driving force behind responsive design.
3. Understand What Mobile Means for Your Users
People interact with websites differently over a smartphone than they do over a desktop. Use analytics to figure out why a user is visiting your website on their phone. They may want to get quick information via the search bar. If that’s common among your users, then make your search bar highly visible and always present.
4. Use Percentages
One of the hardest parts of responsive design is implementing a fluid grid. A fluid grid works together with media queries to display content on different viewports.
Instead of designing breakpoints for every possible viewport, you set a maximum layout size. From there, you define the widths and height by proportion, not pixel. This allows the site to rearrange the layout based on percentages.
5. The Need for Speed
One of the drawbacks of responsive design is slow loading times. In fact, a recent study shows that the majority (48%) of responsive sites load anywhere from 4 to 8 seconds. That length of load time was acceptable in 1997, but in 2014, 64% of smartphone users expect a site to load in under 4 seconds.
6. Eliminate the Unnecessary
Get rid of excessive elements, not only for your user experience, but also for website’s speed. A website weighed down by too many elements will not be pleasant to use or to look at. Use a program like GZIP for compression.
7. To Hamburger or Not to Hamburger
The Hamburger icon – otherwise known as the three lines that show a hidden menu – is the source of fierce debate. Some people hate it, some people love it, but what is the best practice?
For responsive design, the best practice is always a matter of convenience. If a user must always tap the icon to see menu options, it becomes tiring. If you make the most popular menu items visible you can save users from frustration. Keep less popular links in the hamburger menu navigation.
8. Make it Readable
Don’t make your users squint to read or pinch-to-zoom. Make your text size large enough to read from a smaller screen. I recommend a text size of 16 px, 1 em, or 12 pt. Here’s a useful conversion guide for px to em. When designing headlines, use a tool like FitText to create responsive text.
9. Use the Right Button Size
On mobile devices, real estate is premium. Avoid small button sizes. Make sure your buttons are at least 44 x 44 px for comfortable tapping. Another handy tip is to use padding instead of margins. Padding increases the tappable area, but margins do not. Margins increase the white space around the button.
10. Design for Screen Orientation
According to statistics, landscape orientation wins over portrait orientation 59% to 41%. Design your site to look good on both orientations, but pay more attention to landscape. Make sure that your images aren’t stretched.
Responsive design makes it easier for all users to view your website no matter what device they use. These are the basics that will help you get started with responsive design. What are some other best practices that websites should follow to give users a better mobile experience?